|Identification of dry bean lines in Ontario and the Prairies with improved canning and cooking quality
|Parthiba Balasubramanian, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
The objective of the study is to identify dry bean lines with improved canning and cooking quality traits in the Ontario Registration Trial, Ontario Advanced Yield Trial, and three (MB, SK and AB) Prairie Registration Trials.
Dry bean cultivars of various market classes including navy, pinto, black, light red kidney, dark red kidney, white kidney, great northern, red, pink, yellow, and cranberry bean are grown in Canada. More than 75% of the dry bean production is exported to other countries where the bean seeds are either cooked or processed in cans prior to consumption. Acceptance of dry bean cultivars by consumers and processors is dependent on both dry seed (seed size, shape, colour, colour retention and seed coat integrity) and processed seed (canning and cooking) quality traits. Percentage hard-to-cook seed, hydration coefficient after soaking and blanching, washed drain weight, texture, colour, clumping and appearance of seeds are important to processors and consumers. Dry seed quality traits such as colour, size and shape are routinely evaluated in dry bean breeding programs. Assessment of canning and cooking quality traits is essential to obtaining support for registration of dry bean lines in Ontario. The objective of this research project was to assess dry bean lines grown in Ontario and the Prairies for canning and cooking quality traits in the Bean Pilot Plant at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research and Development Centre. For the registration trials, 48 dry bean lines from three locations in Ontario and 11 dry bean lines from three locations in Alberta were assessed for canning and cooking quality traits. Bean seeds were soaked and blanched in deionised water, filled in cans with tomato sauce (navy bean) or brine (other bean types), and processed under high temperature and pressure in a retort. Cans were cooled and stored for two weeks prior to assessing the contents for clumping, appearance, drain weight, colour and texture. For cooking quality assessment, 200 seeds per genotype per location were soaked and cooked in deionised water, and percentage of hard seed and partially hydrated seed were assessed after soaking and after cooking. The experimental design was a randomised complete block, and locations were considered as replications. Data were subjected to Proc Mixed of SAS. Data summary and recommendations on each of the dry bean experimental line for their acceptability for canning and cooking quality traits were provided to the Ontario Pulse Crop Committee, and to the breeders in Ontario. Data for the lines in Alberta was also provided to the breeder. Recommendations on canning and cooking quality were considered by the Ontario Pulse Crop Committee when supporting “six candidate cultivars” and by the Prairie Recommending Committee for Pulse and Special Crops when supporting “a candidate cultivar” for registration in Canada. Dry bean lines from the 2018 Ontario Advanced Yield Trial (76 lines) were assessed for canning and cooking quality attributes in April 2019. Data will be used by breeders when selecting lines to advance to the next generation, and for use as parents for crossing in the breeding programs. Assessment of canning and cooking quality attributes of experimental dry bean lines will ensure Canadian dry bean meet the preferences of consumers and processors.